Tuesday, April 22, 2008

SAP ASAP Methodology - Part 3

Phase 5: Go Live and Support

Now you are ready to go live with your productive system! Afterwards, the project team focuses on supporting the end users, for which training may not be completed. It is also necessary to establish procedures and measurements to review the benefits of your investment in R/3 on an ongoing basis. Key SAP Services to support you in this phase include

The Online Service System (OSS)
Remote Consulting
EarlyWatch® Services
These services encompass a series of remote analyses of specific R/3 System settings, with recommendations for improving system performance.


Fig. Xx: Post go-live activities during productive operation

The last phase of the implementation project is concerned with supporting and optimizing the operative R/3 System, both the technical infrastructure and load distribution as well as the business processes. Activities such as the following are carried out:


Production support facilities are defined, for example, checking system performance on a daily basis


Validation of business processes and their configuration


Follow-up training for users


Signoffs, etc.

This phase can also include a series of follow-up projects for adding new application components or automating and improving business processes, such as with SAP Business Workflow. The project manager monitors the fulfillment of the enterprise goals and the return on investment.

During Phase 5, the first EarlyWatch® session should be held, where experts from SAP analyze the system’s technical infrastructure. The aim is to ensure that the system functions as smoothly as possible. The purpose of SAP's EarlyWatch® Service is to improve the performance of your live R/3 System by preventing system bottlenecks. The underlying concept of SAP EarlyWatch® Service is prevention: taking appropriate action before a problem situation develops.

Regular analysis of live R/3 Systems by teams of experts ensures that potential problems can be recognized and remedied at an early stage. This maintains system availability and performance at a high level. SAP EarlyWatch® measures the server, database, applications, configuration and system load. The results are recorded in a status report with recommendations for system tuning.

From early productive operation onwards, SAP EarlyWatch® provides regular performance and error analyses by evaluating statistical data on the various system components.

System and Release Upgrade

As part of R/3 system maintenance, new releases of the software, including new and enhanced application components and corrections, are shipped at regular intervals. You will normally need to verify or reconfigure some of the settings in order to use them.

AcceleratedSAP offers two kinds of roadmaps for moving the software forward to new releases or versions. One is the Continuous Change Roadmap, which provides ongoing support and assistance for the post go-live phase, and is described below. The second is the Upgrade Roadmap, which you can use to plan and carry out an upgrade to your R/3 System.

Special Release IMGs specific to your system configuration are available. You can read the online documentation for a new release directly from the IMG.

Fig. 31 (3-7): Generating a Release IMG

Upgrade and Release Changes

When you implement a new release, you can decide whether you want to keep working with the same functions within the selected components (Upgrade Customizing) or whether you want to implement the new functionality supplied for the existing release (Delta Customizing).

For legal changes affecting some country versions, in particular for the HR component, you can now see which legal changes have taken effect in your country and carry out the corresponding Customizing activities to have your system include these changes.

One of the strengths of the R/3 System is its ability to grow with the enterprise. Imagine you have to set up a new organizational unit, or a new plant, for example. The IMG can help, using preconfigured or existing organizational units as a basis. All you need to do is adjust the configuration until it matches your exact requirements, verifying the mandatory activities – to get a new, fully functional organizational unit, ready for accounting, purchasing, sales or warehousing, for example.

ASAP for Upgrades

AcceleratedSAP provides an Upgrade Roadmap and upgrade manuals to facilitate release changes and upgrade projects. The Upgrade Roadmap enables you to take a systematic approach to release changes and complements the available technical documentation.

Although implementing new versions of R/3 is carried out in the form of a new project, the project team will profit from their experiences during initial implementation. Many documents already exist and only need to be verified or extended.

Fig. 32: Phases in an upgrade project

In order to systematically carry out an upgrade project, the ASAP Upgrade Roadmap will generate a project plan with only the activities required. All other activities have either already been carried out or they are not relevant. As with the Roadmap for the initial implementation, there are descriptions of the individual tasks, and wherever possible, additional accelerators in the form of checklists, templates or examples. The technical documentation of the upgrades is extended via ASAP to include release-specific project management.

Release 4.0 of AcceleratedSAP contains the Continuous Change Roadmap, with standard activities necessary after the initial implementation. In this way, SAP provides ongoing support and assistance for post go-live activities. The tasks in that structure provide solutions for all known types of continuous change: Business changes, technology changes or changes in the user community.


Outlook: Global ASAP

R/3 is configured to satisfy the business and strategic needs of many large corporations. The strategic needs and historical IT environment of each of these customer has a significant effect on the way the R/3 System is implemented. One thing unites all these customers: their need to structure the implementation according to a global approach. Global AcceleratedSAP is designed to provide a uniform rollout concept.

Fig. Xx Global AcceleratedSAP Roadmap

The success of AcceleratedSAP as an implementation methodology has made it clear that global implementations can also be carried out in this way. Global ASAP builds on the existing ASAP methodology, using ASAP's structured procedure accelerators, modelling methods and tools. Project teams implementing R/3 on a global level will find additional methodological guidance and functionality in the Global ASAP Roadmap.

Basic Concept of Global ASAP

The basic concept of Global ASAP is to map all activities not taking place at a local level onto a special structure called the Global Roadmap. This roadmap is then optimally linked to the roll-out roadmaps for the projects at the local level. The goal is to have a preconfigured central system – in the form of one or many templates – and to roll it out locally as often as necessary.

A preconfigured global system, in the sense of a "global template" is the sum of all common group-specific customizing settings, models, individual templates, etc. These are included in one R/3 System as the sole source of reference for productive systems on the global (that is, corporate headquarters) and local levels (individual companies and plants).

Fig. xx: Rollout in local units of various sizes

In contrast to the existing AcceleratedSAP Roadmap, which only supports one implementation strategy, Global ASAP must support various R/3 implementation strategies, which may contain different methods situated at a very high level, such as:

Creation of a global reference system with group-wide standards and partial functionality being defined at this level.
Extensive mapping of all group units in the reference system, for the subsequent complete rollout
Creation of a global template from a template system in order to roll back the software to the local units
Implementation of distributed R/3 systems at the same time as the creation and the rollout of a global template
Furthermore, Global ASAP must also support strategies for implementing R/3 in various local and distributed R/3 systems, as well as support the planning and execution of concurrent projects. Almost all global customers are having to deal with the topic of distributed systems. For this reason, the Global Roadmap contains accelerators for distributed processes as well as test and productive system topologies. The prerequisite for an implementation strategy with distributed processes and global templates is the standardization of organizational units, groupwide processes and data.

Managing changes is critical in global implementations. This refers not only to the correct communication of change procedures but also to the implementation of change management procedures.

The communication of changes in global implementations basically involves the same issues as in regular ASAP change management. For this reason, please refer to the section on Change Management in the Chapter AcceleratedSAP.

Global Roadmap

The predefined Global ASAP Roadmap with its four phases offers you the following implementation benefits:

Proven strategic decisions used as the basis for effectively implementing R/3 and its installation tools
The development of groupwide implementation standards
The rapid creation of a group reference system and a central productive system for setting up master records, for example.
Long-term and cost-effective support and maintenance concepts
Phase 1: Global Program Setup

In the first phase, the global implementation program is set up. The workpackages Program Management Preparation (see below) and Global Template Project Setup contain administrative and project planning steps. The workpackage Define Global Strategy is structured to facilitate the holding of senior management workshops and follow-up studies on global implementation strategies.

The basis of global SAP strategy decisions is formed by carrying out a strategy determination study. This analysis includes modeling the organizational structure, defining the functional scope and key business processes, reporting requirements and the corresponding documentation. After this, the following elements of a global R/3 strategy need to be worked out:

System Architecture Strategy
Describes the IT standards and requirements based on the global system topology of the corporate group.
Distribution Strategy
Describes the distribution of system functionality in a system topology defined for this purpose.
Global Design/Configuration Strategy
Specifies the type and number of reference template systems to be developed.
Change Management Strategy
Describes the type and scope of new implementations and the way change procedures are carried out for users and hardware.
Gap Resolution Policy
Describes the solutions needed to bridge identified gaps in the functionality.
Implementation Strategy
Describes the number, type and way that global templates are rolled out and local systems implemented.
Center of Excellence Strategy
Describes the organization required for training, maintenance and support functions.
Customer Implementation Release Strategy
Examines and describes the procedure for upgrading the R/3 System specific to country and industry solutions.
Global Program Structure and Resource Strategy
Specifies the sequence of the implementation program, its organization and the corresponding allocation of resources.
The global R/3 strategy determination process is concluded with a Risk Analysis and a presentation to the enterprise's management, which then leads to the appropriate implementation strategy decisions being made.

Phase 2: Global Business Blueprint

The second phase of the Roadmap is characterized by the creation of the development systems and template contents. This includes the reviewing of the scope defined in the setup phase, the training of the template team, and the designing of the template itself.

The analysis of local and global requirements leads to a detailed model of the business processes necessary at the global level. The standardization of business processes and functions, as well as of best-practice cases is one of the main tasks of a global template. In this connection, the special requirements for business processes and functions running on distributed systems are an important consideration.

Phase 3: Global Realization

The work packages in this phase deal primarily with the creation of the global template together with the local units. This phase also describes the way to deal with group-specific customer developments at the global level.

In order for the concept of a global template to be successful beyond the rollout phase, it is necessary to ensure smooth maintenance handling. The step of Global System Management is therefore particularly important, since it contains the description of the system architecture to be implemented and the management of the systems involved.

A further important step is the creation of a Customer Competence Center. This organization should be able to carry out first-level support and coordinate all future developments. Global ASAP provides guidelines for the establishment of a Customer Competence Center.

Phase 4: Global Maintenance and Support

Besides administrative activities, the phases after the rollout emphasize the support of the local units. Phase 4 contains information on how to tune the local system and optimize business processes. Experiences gained during the rollout should now be incorporated back into the global template and be made available for later installations of R/3. A suitable rollback procedure is also included.

Global ASAP contains procedures for dealing with ongoing systems operations and the template upgrade procedure relevant to the customer's implementation release strategy.

Rollout Roadmap

The Rollout Roadmap has as its goal the creation of a local productive reference system and, in the case of distributed systems, the provision of a link to a central productive system in order to, for example, set up and maintain R/3 master records.

The Rollout Roadmap speeds up the implementation process in the local units, so that – depending on the enterprise's requirements – entire implementation series can be carried out. Redundant project activities can thus be pinpointed and avoided. The advantages of this roadmap are:

The realization of groupwide implementation standards, through an efficient rollout in the local units
A rollback procedure for the exchange of general experiences, which can then be incorporated into the template. In this way the changes are passed on to the local units quickly and comprehensively.
Program Management

The implementation of the R/3 System in large multinational corporations is a more time-consuming and complicated process than for mid-sized companies. For this reason , corporations need to observe certain procedures in order to control costs and avoid the delays that a lengthy rollout might entail. The following graphic shows an example of how global templates can be used to carry out a rollout. On the global level, that is, at corporate headquarters, it is necessary to co-ordinate all activities carried out during implementation and the maintenance/support phase after implementation.

Within Global ASAP, program management is regarded not as a project, but as the providing of official channels of support for the further development of the template, the ongoing work on group-specific standards and the rollout of the corresponding system functionality. These global activities need to be carried out and clearly defined centrally for all local systems.


Figure xx: Projects to Complete a Group Rollout

When local project activities are carried out, the program team at the global level is not actually responsible for the productive start of any systems at the local sites. This is the main task of the local project teams. Here it is important to differentiate between tasks carried out at the global and local levels, as well as to differentiate between resources used for development and resources used in the rollout itself.

The developments described here contain a global implementation strategy based on global templates and distributed system topologies. This is where R/3 customers will reap the greatest benefit. Within Global ASAP, further release strategies and enhancements containing new contents and functions which apply to the Global ASAP Roadmap will follow.

Glossary

(Note: terms in italics within a definition are also included with their own definition.)

ABAP

Advanced Business Application Programming: The programming language developed by SAP for application development purposes. All R/3 applications are written in ABAP.

ABAP Dictionary

Central storage facility for all data used in the R/3 System. The ABAP Dictionary describes the logical structure of application development objects and their representation in the structures of the underlying relational database. All runtime environment components such as application programs or the database interface get information about these objects from the ABAP Dictionary. The ABAP Dictionary is an active data dictionary and is fully integrated in the ABAP Workbench. It forms part of the R/3 Repository.

ABAP Program

Any program written in the ABAP programming language. Generally, there are two kinds of ABAP programs:


Dialog programs: These are the actual R/3 programs (Basis system and applications). Dialog programs are transactions which conduct a dialog with the user across one or more screens. Depending on what the user enters, the dialog program reacts by presenting the next screen, displaying list output, modifying database tables, etc.


Report programs (ABAP reports): Report programs read and evaluate data in database tables. When you execute a report program, the output can either be displayed on the screen or sent to a printer.

ABAP Workbench

SAP's integrated graphical programming environment which offers all the necessary tools for creating and maintaining business applications in the R/3 System. The ABAP Workbench supports the development and modification of R/3 client/server applications written in ABAP. You can use the tools of the ABAP Workbench to write ABAP code, design screens, and create user interfaces. Furthermore, you can debug and test applications for efficiency using predefined functions, as well as access development objects and database information.

Accelerator

In ASAP, a collection of descriptive texts, how-to's, templates and examples on all subjects relating to the implementation of the R/3 System. Some are short information texts on a particular subject, others are longer texts such as white papers. There are also a number of predefined and empty templates or forms which you can use when carrying out your implementation.

Activity

See ASAP activity or Customizing activity.

Application Link Enabling (ALE)

A technology used in the development and operation of distributed applications. Its primary function is to support distributed, integrated installations of the R/3 System. It offers a controlled business message exchange, while maintaining data consistency across loosely coupled R/3 applications. The applications are not integrated using a central database but by means of synchronous and asynchronous communication.

Application programming interface (API)

An interface used by application programs to communicate with other systems, for example, for calling subroutines or programs on remote systems.

ASAP activity

Group of tasks in the Implementation Assistant. The results of an activity can produce certain deliverables. An activity can be carried out by one or more project team members. Several activities comprise a work package.

AQUA (Accelerated Quality Assurance Program)

See Quality Review Program.

Authorization concept

Concept that covers the structure and functions associated with authorization assignment and checking in the R/3 System. You use authorizations to protect the system from unauthorized or unwanted access.

Authorization profile

Element of the authorization system. An authorization profile gives users access to the system. A profile contains individual authorizations, which are identified by the authorization name and one or more authorization objects. If a profile is specified in a user master record, the user has all the authorizations defined in this profile.

BAPI

See Business Application Programming Interface.

Baseline Scope

In ASAP, the Baseline Scope refers to a certain level of configuration (usually 80% of the entire scope) which has been formally reviewed and agreed upon. The Baseline serves as a development platform that serves as the basis for further configuration and business process development.

Baseline Scope Document

The Baseline Scope Document defines the business processes and requirements that will be configured and played back during the baseline confirmation session.

Blueprint Generator

A component of the Q&A Database that gathers information from the CI Forms and presents the information in an organized document. The Blueprint Generator creates a Microsoft Word document called the Business Blueprint that includes a table of contents (listed by enterprise area, scenario, and process) and a logical assembly of all the CI forms.

BP Master List

See Business Process Master List.

Budget Plan

This plan is a subset of the Project Plan. It contains the projected costs by month, compared with the actual costs, and calculates the variance.

Business Application Programming Interface (BAPI)

Standard R/3 interface that enables you to integrate third-party software into the R/3 System. Business Application Programming Interfaces (also known as Business APIs or BAPIs) are defined in the Business Object Repository (BOR) as methods applied to SAP business objects, in order to perform specific business tasks. BAPIs are implemented and stored in the R/3 System as RFC-enabled function modules in the ABAP Workbench.

Business Blueprint

The main deliverable of the Business Blueprint phase. The blueprint document provides written documentation of the results of the requirements gathering sessions. The purpose of this document is to verify that a proper understanding of requirements has been communicated. The blueprint also finalizes the detailed scope of the project.

Business Engineer

The technical platform for business engineering that lets you model and configure R/3 applications from a business viewpoint. The components of the Business Engineer are designed to speed up the initial implementation as well as to support continuous engineering, and contain graphical methods for viewing, navigating, configuring, and testing the R/3 System:


R/3 Reference Model, containing all business processes and the component hierarchy


Implementation Guide (the "How-to" of R/3 Customizing)


Industry-specific models.

Business Navigator

An R/3 graphical navigation tool for displaying the models contained in the R/3 Reference Model. There are various ways of accessing the Business Navigator (by views), intended to call up specifically the models and list displays of the R/3 Reference Model needed. By selecting a company-specific or project-specific filter, only the scope of the enterprise or project IMG will be displayed that was previously selected in the IMG.

Business Navigator Web

A Web-based graphical navigation tool which allows you to browse through a model in order to understand its structure and see how processes are related and organized on an enterprise-wide level.

Business object

Represents a central business object in the real world, such as a purchase order. R/3 business objects describe complete business processes. By invoking methods known as BAPIs (Business APIs), external applications can access and manipulate the business objects via the Internet, DCOM or CORBA.

Business object model

A type of model contained in the R/3 Reference Model used for describing business objects, including their attributes, methods, interfaces, and their relationships. Can be displayed in graphical form with the Business Navigator.

Business Process

See Process.

Business Process Master List

The Business Process Master List is a representation of the R/3 business processes and transactions defined in the project scope. The BP Master List is the central data repository that feeds all business process information to subsequent worksheets.

Business Process Procedure

An MS-Word document containing a prefilled template that provides the initial definition for developing User Procedures and training documentation. The final BPPs are developed during the Realization phase using the BP Master List, in which one Business Process Procedure represents one R/3 transaction.

Business scenario

See Scenario.

Business scenario questionnaires

Questionnaires designed to facilitate requirements gathering on specific business scenarios and their processes. These questionnaires use open-ended questions to promote the flow of information between consultants and the customer. During the requirements gathering sessions for a company's business scenarios, consultants capture company input in detail and adapt process models to reflect company needs.

CATT (Computer Aided Test Tool)

CATT is an SAP test tool for grouping and automating repetitive business transactions in test runs and text modules. It is included in the ABAP Workbench and enables you to bundle business transactions in reusable test procedures for automated testing.

Change Management

The handling of R/3 objects as they change from one environment to another. This movement may be from an enterprise and business perspective (where the organization or the way an enterprise makes business changes) or it may be from an IT perspective (where an organization changes systems or moves from one system release to a more current one). In AcceleratedSAP, a Change Management Roadmap is being developed.

Within ASAP Project Management, change management refers to the management of changes in scope, budget, timeline and resources.

Client

In commercial, organizational, and technical terms, a self-contained unit in the R/3 System with separate master records and its own set of tables.

Client copy

Function that allows you to copy a client within the same R/3 System or to another R/3 System. System settings determine what will be copied: Customizing data, business application data and/or user master records.

Client-dependent Customizing

Customizing which is specific only to one client. Settings in client-dependent tables are valid only in the client which was accessed during the logon process.

Client independent Customizing

See Cross-Client Customizing.

Component

Applications in the R/3 System are combinations of components. The components are held in a hierarchy, which can be displayed in the R/3 Reference Model, that describes the functional scope of the applications in a top-down fashion. The number of components and the number of levels an application has in the hierarchical structure depend on its functional scope.

Component hierarchy

Tool for displaying all application components in the R/3 System. The user interface of the component hierarchy resembles a file manager with a hierarchical structure. You can display either the standard hierarchy of applications delivered with the system or your company-specific applications. The component hierarchy can be displayed using the Business Navigator.

Component view

One of two navigation paths in the R/3 Reference Model. The component view shows the business application components of the R/3 System in a hierarchical structure. It provides access to the various models in the R/3 Reference Model (for example, processes and business objects). See Process flow view.

Concept Check Tool

A tool enabling you to carry out quality checks on the project preparation, technical infrastructure and R/3 configuration settings throughout the first two implementation phases of the R/3 project. In this way you are alerted to potential data volume and configuration conflicts that could lead to performance issues if not addressed.

Configuration cycle

A tightly controlled group of business processes that together constitute an optimal sequence and assembly that is used for configuring and developing the R/3 solution.

Conversion

The preferred AcceleratedSAP term for the process of establishing interfaces or methods to facilitate the transfer of large amounts of data to an R/3 System (as opposed to the term "data transfer").

Country-specific standard settings

In R/3, the settings in a client representing the legal and busines requirements of a country. SAP delivers the German version as standard. By executing a program to generate the "country version", the default settings reflect the country selected.

Critical activity

Each activity within the IMG has an attribute assigned to it, indicating whether the task is one where the project team should take particular care when reviewing or changing it. This is because SAP has determined that changing the settings for such critical activities after processing transactions could have serious consequences. Control on these activities during and after an implementation is very important.

Critical success factors

The key areas that have specific impact on the implementation process. They vary for every enterprise; typical factors include: executive sponsoring, change management and control, resources (appropriate, enough and committed), issue resolution, user involvement, clear objectives and scope.

Cross-application

Refers to tables, entities or processes that relate to more than one business application. Some examples of cross-application components are ALE and Workflow.

Cross-client Customizing

Customizing which is specific to more than one client. Settings in cross-client tables relate to all clients, regardless of which client was accessed during the logon process.

Customer Input form (CI form)

A standard template for gathering data on business processes. The customer input template can be modified to reflect the specific areas of an implementation project and is used in conjunction with the business process questions.

Customizing

Method in the R/3 System with which you install SAP functionality in your company quickly, safely, and cost-effectively, tailor the standard functionality to fit your company's specific business needs, and document and monitor the implementation phases in an easy-to-use R/3 project management tool. Customizing in the R/3 System is done via the Implementation Guide (IMG).

Customizing Cross-System Viewer

Tool for comparing Customizing objects. The Customizing Cross-System Viewer compares Customizing objects in two logical systems, where logical systems are clients either in the same R/3 System, or in different R/3 Systems.

Customizing object

Combination of Customizing tables/views that, according to business criteria, belong together and must therefore be maintained and transported together. You define a Customizing object via an IMG activity.

Customizing project

A Customizing project can be


an implementation project: an implementation project includes all the functionality that is introduced for productive (live) use at one time.


a release project: a release project covers all the work you do when you introduce a new system upgrade or release.

Cycle concept

In ASAP, a method to rapidly evolve and refine the Baseline scope into the finalized R/3 solution by using an iterative development and playback approach. There are multiple cycles within a project, each possessing an additional level of granularity, building upon one another, until the R/3 solution has been realized.

Data model

Conceptual description of data objects, their attributes, and the relationships between them. There are different types of data models that depend on the data structures to be defined. Example: relational data model.

Delta Customizing

Customizing activities that are required if you want to use new functions in existing business application components after a system or release upgrade. Delta Customizing covers new features for functions already used in live systems.

Development system

The R/3 System in which development and Customizing work is carried out. From here, the system data is usually transferred to the quality assurance system.

Dominant scenario

The primary scenario for an enterprise area which represents a customer’s requirements. In the Q&Adb, the dominant scenario is used to capture the majority (representing the 80% case) of the customer’s requirements and prevent having to duplicate similar requirements in many CI forms. This means that answers given to the dominant will be used as a reference for all subordinates. The same procedure can be used for flagging processes.

Early Watch Service

A diagnostic service for the R/3 System that supports R/3 implementation and productive operation. Support is provided through remote connection between SAP and the customer to help control and resolve problems such as bottlenecks.

End user documentation

Company-developed documentation for end users, to be used in training prior to going live as well as referenced for policy and procedures. Business Process Procedures can serve as the starting point for end user documentation.

End user procedure

In ASAP, a template that is provided for building user training materials for all different types of users. It is also used to create user documentation.

Enhancement

As opposed to the term "modification", an addition to an R/3 standard program made via a user exit provided for making such additions. An enhancement does not change R/3 Repository objects. With the ABAP Workbench you can develop any R/3 Repository Objects you might need. Enhancements are not affected by upgrading to a new release. See Modification.

Enterprise area

Part of a business area. An enterprise area is a grouping of organization units that have closely linked work and contribute to discrete business processes. The Enterprise Area is the first level of the Process Flow View within the Business Navigator. Examples are Procurement, Logistics, Organization and Human Resources, and External Accounting. Also called Enterprise process area.

Enterprise Area Scope Document

An Excel spreadsheet used to reference which SAP enterprise areas and scenarios a company will be implementing. It is used in initial scoping of the project, to assign business process owners, and also as a reference to begin the Business Blueprint.

Enterprise IMG

The Enterprise IMG is a subset of the SAP Reference IMG, generated by selecting the application components and countries to be implemented. You select the required countries and business application components from the Reference IMG, in order to create your Enterprise IMG. The Enterprise IMG contains all the activities that have to be carried out to implement the application components that will be used in the relevant country or countries.

Event-controlled process chain (EPC)

A graphical display form used in the R/3 Reference Model to describe in detail the logical sequence of business functions and events carried out by the R/3 System. The EPC is the fourth level of the model and may be accessed by drilldown from the scenarios and processes.

IMG activity

Explanatory description of the steps needed to make a system setting. Activities in the IMG are linked directly to the related Customizing transactions that are used to make the system setting concerned. You can use the IMG activities to record notes that document your system settings. You can also base the recording of IMG project management (status) information on IMG activities.

IMG project

See Project IMG.

IMG project documentation

Tracking, controlling and monitoring an IMG project through attaching notes to the activities in the Implementation Guide. The notes may be kept in SAPscript or WinWord. They may be controlled using note types to determine visibility at the project level or overall.

Implementation Guide (IMG)

Tool for configuring the R/3 System to meet customer requirements. For each business application, the Implementation Guide explains all the steps in the implementation process, tells you the SAP standard (factory) settings, and describes system configuration work (activities). The hierarchical structure of the IMG reflects the structure of the R/3 application components, lists all the documentation to do with implementing the R/3 System, and contains active functions with which you can open Customizing transactions, write project documentation, maintain status information, and support the management of your R/3 System implementation. There are four levels in the IMG:


The SAP Reference IMG, containing all Customizing activities in R/3


The Enterprise IMG, containing the subset generated for an enterprise


Project IMG: An subset of the Enterprise IMG for a particular implementation project


Upgrade Customizing IMG: Based either on the Enterprise IMG or on a Project IMG. For a given release upgrade, it shows all the documents linked to a release note.

Implementation strategy

An approach to R/3 implementation. The strategy is based on long-term perspectives and includes all the steps planned across the whole enterprise in connection with implementing the R/3 System. Establishing the strategy is an essential part of project preparation and has a great impact on the sequence of implementation projects, in particular for global implementations. There are various implementation strategies: the "big bang" approach (all applications at once), phased (a few applications or business processes at a time), or by a plant or division, etc.

Instance

An administrative unit which groups together components of an R/3 System that provide one or more services. These services are started and stopped at the same time. All components belonging to an instance are specified as parameters in a common instance profile. A central R/3 System consists of a single instance which includes all the necessary SAP services.

Integration Test Plan

In ASAP, a test plan that combines the defined resources, time frames, scope and procedures for carrying out integration testing.

Integration Testing

The testing of a chain of business processes which flow together and/or cross functional boundaries. Integration testing also involves outputs, interfaces, procedures, organizational design, and security profiles. Its focus is on likely business events and high-impact exceptions.

International Demonstration and Education System (IDES)

A preconfigured R/3 System containing mature sample enterprises that use most of the processes in the R/3 System. Via a simple user guide and a range of master and transaction data, you can work through a multitude of business scenarios.

Issue

In ASAP, an unplanned activity, project, or business situation that affects business and project goals and delays schedules. An issue may result in changes to scope, budget, timeline, and resources.

Knowledge Corner

In the Implementation Assistant, a library of reference documents which are helpful during requirements gathering and configuration. The different areas are called Reference Corner (containing Customizing How-To's), Industry Corner (containing industry-specific information), Country Corner (containing country-specific information), Service Corner (containing, for example, the OSS Reference Guide) and Technical Corner (containing, for example, the Guidebook "System Administration Made Easy").

Mandatory activity

Each activity within the Implementation Guide has an attribute assigned indicating whether or not the task is one that the project team must revise because SAP standard settings may not be sufficient for particular business requirements. Focus on mandatory activities (for example, by creating a project view) supports a quick implementation.

Master data

In R/3, data relating to individual objects, which remains unchanged over an extended period of time. Master data contains information that is used in the same manner for similar objects. Examples would be the master data of a supplier containing name, address, and banking information, or the master data of a user in the R/3 System, containing the user's name, authorizations, default printer, etc.

Model

Graphical representation of any item of business significance in the R/3 System. Together, all models for all of the business applications included as standard are referred to as the R/3 Reference Model.

Modification

Change made to R/3 standard programs (that is, R/3 Repository objects) to meet the requirements of a particular customer. In the event of changes made by SAP, modified R/3 Repository objects have to be reviewed and, where necessary, adapted. See Enhancement.

Operation mode

Resource configuration for instances in the R/3 System. An operation mode defines the number of work processes for each service in an instance and the periods when the services are available. In R/3, operation modes support uninterrupted 24-hour operation and automatic switching of work process types.

Organization Structure Questionnaires

In ASAP, questionnaires designed to facilitate gathering requirements on the company’s business mission, structure, and processes to allow for an initial mapping of the company’s business to a proposed SAP organizational structure. See R/3 Structure Modeler.

Preconfigured Client (PCC)

The preconfigured client is a set of transport files consisting of the most frequently used U.S. and Canadian Customizing settings, such as the Chart of Accounts, Units of Measure, and Layout Sets. The basic processes of MM, SD, and FI/CO are up and running from the first day the client is transported.

Preconfigured Industry System

Preconfigured R/3 systems, each representing a specific industry. Each preconfigured industry system includes an Industry Model, the industry-specific Customizing settings, sample master data and industry-specific documentation.

Process

Activity describing the targeted creation or changing of business objects or conditions, usually representing one or more R/3 transactions. EPCs portray processes in detail. Processes show how individual functions in R/3 can be linked to solve a business task. All the functions belonging to a process can be mapped as an EPC.

Process flow view

One of the two ways of viewing the R/3 Reference Model (compare: Component view). The Process flow view provides process-oriented access to the scenarios and processes. It is arranged as a structure containing the levels enterprise areas, scenarios, and processes with functions (EPCs).

Process model

A type of model contained in the R/3 Reference Model used for describing R/3 processes and scenarios and how they are related to one another. You can display the process model in graphical form as EPCs and value chains. These models can also be displayed and changed using third-party modeling tools (from such vendors as Visio, Intellicorp, and Aris).

Production system

The live R/3 System used for normal operations. Also termed "productive system" or "delivery system".

Project Charter

In ASAP, a document containing a clear definition of an enterprise's R/3 implementation goals, including: objectives, scope, implementation strategy, deadlines and responsibilities. The project Charter is drawn up by the project manager as part of the Project Preparation work package in Phase One.

Project documentation

See IMG Project documentation.

Project Estimator (PE)

A Pre-Sales tool that provides a baseline estimation of time, resources and costs associated with a specific R/3 implementation. The questions concern the scope, level of company and SAP team expertise, as well as level of complexity of business processes. Using the Project Estimator, you can generate the Enterprise Area Scope Document and a Project plan.

Project IMG

Acts as a filter on the Enterprise IMG and is used by the project team for processing the IMG activities in their implementation project. It is configured by country and application. You can create views of a Project IMG that limit the selection of IMG activities. These views are mandatory activities, optional activities, critical activities, and non-critical activities.

Project Management Planning Tool

A software program that is used to manage the project implementation process. It provides an outline of steps, durations, start and finish dates, resources, charts, etc. An example would be Microsoft Project.

Project Plan

In ASAP, an overall plan with three components: the Budget Plan, the Resource Plan, and the Work Plan.

Question and Answer Database

The Question and Answer Database is a repository of all questions and corresponding company responses that are required to define business requirements and to develop the business solutions in terms of the R/3 Reference Model and R/3 System. This includes business processes, technical, organizational, and configuration questions and answers that are the source for creating the Business Blueprint.

Quality Assurance Program

See Quality Review Program.

Quality assurance system

System in which final testing is carried out. Tested, stable development objects and Customizing settings (Customizing object parameters) are transported to the quality assurance system from the development and test system at defined times for final testing. From here, the system data is transferred to the Production system.

Quality Review Program

ASAP's Quality Review Program assists the executive management and project manager at customer sites in providing a second opinion of the implementation progress towards achieving the project goals. The scope of the review is to investigate the application, as well as technical and project management areas of the implementation. The review looks for good implementation practices while following a prescribed methodology. There are four suggested times to do a quality review during the implementation, however, they can also be determined by the Project Manager and Quality Auditor.

Quality check

A quality check occurs at the end of each phase in the Roadmap. This check is to be performed by the Project Manager and is intended to provide verification that all activities and tasks were performed, and produced complete and correct deliverables. After each quality check is performed, the next phase can be started. In contrast, the Quality Review Program also assesses the implementation risks and evaluates the implementation on an overall level.

R/3 Reference Model

Representation of the SAP R/3 System using graphical models. The R/3 Reference Model includes process models and data models/object models. Further models, for example, industry or enterprise-specific models, can be created by reduction using the R/3 Reference Model. The R/3 Reference Model is used to map an enterprise's requirements to R/3. It can be displayed using the Business Navigator or Business Navigator Web.

R/3 Repository

Central storage facility for all development objects in the ABAP Workbench. These development objects include ABAP programs, screens, and documentation. In addition to all the process models, data models, business objects and business object models, it also includes all their data and their relationships. The ABAP Dictionary forms part of the R/3 Repository.

R/3 Structure Modeler

An ASAP Accelerator which lets you graphically visualize the R/3 System organizational structures of your enterprise using the Structure Modeler Visio® template. Please note, you must be a licensed Visio® user to use this Accelerator.

Release note

In R/3, information containing all changes introduced in a system or release upgrade. These changes may include functionality that has been withdrawn, added, corrected or changed.

Release project (IMG)

An implementation project which focuses only on those activities which are relevant due to a new release. The list may be either a project or view reflecting delta or upgrade Customizing activities.

Release upgrade

Shipment and implementation of new and enhanced R/3 business application components. New releases are shipped at fairly large intervals. Before the new functionality can be used, the system settings and the conceptual design have to be adjusted.

Request Management

In R/3, functionality which supports the creation, control and transport of all Customizing and ABAP Workbench activities or objects between different R/3 Systems, for example, from a quality assurance system to a production system.

Resource Plan

This plan is a subset of the Project Plan. The resource plan outlines the resources assigned to the R/3 implementation. It displays both the planned number of workdays per month, the actual, and it calculates the variance between the two. It also contains a cumulative planned hours worksheet.

SAP Business Workflow

Covers technologies and tools for automated control and processing of cross-application processes. It helps coordinate those involved in a given process, the worksteps to be performed, and the data to be processed to increase productivity.

SAP Systems Operations Manual

A document that contains the SAP standard systems administration procedures and policies. This document should include detailed descriptions, persons responsible, and escalation management plans for all SAP systems management activities.

SAPoffice

R/3’s own electronic mail and folder system which enables you to send documents internally and externally and to store them.

SAP Reference IMG

The Implementation Guide delivered in the standard R/3 version containing all IMG activities.

Scenario

A pattern for a group of business processes in the R/3 Reference Model. The EPC of a scenario shows the sequential and logical relationships between the processes that belong to the scenario.

A scenario can be seen as a chain of business tasks that share a common dependency on either time or an event. Event-driven scenarios are those that are based on a particular event, such as the receipt of a sales order. Time-based scenarios are those that are based not on a particular event, but on the passage of time. Such processes include month-end closing, standard cost revaluation, check run, and possibly data reorganization.

Scenario process

See Scenario.

Scope

In ASAP, identifies the business boundaries of what is to be implemented in the way of R/3 functionality. 80% of this is defined in the Baseline scope.

Subordinate scenario/process

See Dominant scenario/process.

Task

In ASAP, a specific event to be performed by a project team member. Several tasks make up an activity in the Roadmap.

Technical design document

A document that contains the technical description of an R/3 implementation. This document includes physical system layout and distribution, printing infrastructure, SAP network topology, and systems management strategies.

Transaction

An executable R/3 process, such as creating a sales order or booking a goods issue, in the R/3 System. After logon, there are the following levels in the R/3 System: the main menu level, the application level, and the task level. A transaction is a task performed at task level. To execute a transaction starting at main menu level, you either navigate through the menus by choosing the appropriate menu options, or you enter the appropriate four-character transaction code in the command field and go directly to the task level.

Transport request

In R/3, a document for copying corrections from one system type to another system type. Corrections that have been released can be entered in a transport request. When you release a transport request, the transport is carried out. For example, corrections may be transported from a development system to a quality assurance system.

Transport Organizer

In R/3, a tool for preparing and managing transports which support the distribution of developments in the system group by the ABAP Workbench and Customizing Organizer, a tool for managing Customizing projects in the R/3 System.

Transport system

See Transport Organizer.

Upgrade Customizing

Comprises the IMG activities required to continue using the application components when a new release is installed. It bundles changes to functions already in productive use.

User exit

Point in R/3 at which a customer's own program can be called. In contrast to customer exits, user exits allow developers to access program components and data objects in the standard system. Upon upgrading, each user exit must be checked to ensure that it conforms to the standard system. There are User exits that use includes. These are customer enhancements that are called from the program. Secondly, there are User exits that use tables. These are used and managed directly via Customizing.

Value chain

In the R/3 Reference Model, an aggregated representation of business scenarios across enterprise areas. Value chains can be defined for a particular type of business or industry, showing the overall course of a business process across enterprise areas. On a highly aggregated level, the value chains show how business scenarios are linked. Industry-specific value chains also help customers to identify their business processes on an aggregated level.

View

Cross-application view of several tables in the ABAP Dictionary. When you create a table, you assign a key to it. However, the fields in the key may be inadequate for solving some problems, so you can generate a view from several tables or parts of tables.

A view-led Customizing transaction is used for configuring tables for simple business objects. View-led transactions group together all relevant fields for a Customizing object in a view.

View Cluster

Grouping of Customizing objects which logically or hierarchically are allocated to a complex business object.

Workbench Organizer

Tool for managing central and decentralized software development projects in the ABAP Workbench.

Workflow

See SAP Business Workflow.

Work Package

In ASAP, a group of activities designed to accomplish a major portion of a Roadmap phase.

Work Plan

A subset of the Project Plan, containing a detailed set of phases, workpackages, activities, and tasks from the ASAP Roadmap. This information is organized in a project management planning tool such as MS-Project. A Gantt Chart is usually contained within this work plan to view timelines, dependencies and resources.

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